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In Encyclopedia of Educational Research, ed. This is especially true of "categorical" approaches, that is, those built around a list of types of philosophy of education, or of discrete schools of thought, or of specific disciplinary methods. Benjamin implicitly identifies the intellectual barrier standing in the way of the ability to read what is not. However, the question which remains for the final section is whether Rose’s retrieval of Hegelian speculative philosophy is more comprehensive in its understanding of the formative nature of speculative philosophy than Benjamin’s? Speculative Philosophy is the endeavour to frame a coherent, logical, necessary system of Torsten Husén and T. Neville Postlethwaite. Caygill argues that “the transition from reading ‘what was never written’ to writing proposed in both versions of the 1933 text effects a reduction in the complexity of configuration” (Caygill, 1998, p.5). One way to begin such an examination is by thinking about the impulses that draw one into this activity at all: What is philosophy of education for? The attempt to educate from the standpoint of pure colour/ truth would be to begin from thinking the absolute, and therefore to comprehend the conditions of the possibility of the experience of education. Some simply seek to foster the dispositions regarded as desirable by a society using methods laid down by its culture. In the first form, philosophy of education was traditionally developed by philosophers–for example, Aristotle, Augustine, and John Locke–as part of their philosophical systems, in the context of their ethical theories. It is interesting to note, however, that Benjamin’s suggestion that there has been a transition in our ability to read, seems to contradict his unwillingness, “to accept the Hegelian view of a developmental history of spirit, or the continuous process of mediation between the absolute and spatio-temporal experience” (Caygill, 1998, p.2). This tension is perhaps felt most acutely by contemporary post-modern philosophers of education, but it can be seen in much of the work of neo-Marxists, critical theorists, feminists, and Foucauldians as well: how to argue for and promote an emancipatory approach to education that does not itself fall into the habits of exclusionary language, authoritative (if not authoritarian) postures, and universalizing generalizations that are excoriated when detected in the work of others. He may do any of the things just mentioned. ( Log Out /  He may also philosophize about the discipline of education, asking whether it is a discipline, what its subject matter is, and what its methods, including the methods of the philosophy of education, should be. That is, it may be part of the discipline in the sense of being concerned with the aims, forms, methods, or results of the process of educating or being educated; or it may be metadisciplinary in the sense of being concerned with the concepts, aims, and methods of the discipline. In part two of this essay we will see that Rose and Hegel are both pointing to the same task for education in terms of their recognition that the modern individual finds the abstract form ready-made. Significantly, Benjamin makes it very clear that the speculative philosophy he proposes is not Hegelian. Increasingly interested in Hegelian philosophy, he was cofounder of Journal of Speculative Philosophy (1867), the first philosophical journal in the US. Caygill points out that “Kant’s concept of experience has rightly been one of the main areas of critical contention in the interpretation of his philosophy” (Caygill, 1995, p.187). To educate consciousness to comprehend the fixity of its determinate thoughts is to educate consciousness to ‘know’ these truths negatively. Caygill, H. (1998a), The Broken Hegel: Gillian Rose’s Retrieval of Speculative Philosophy, Women: a cultural review, 9, 1, pp. In Philosophy of Education: An Encyclopedia, ed. Such disputes can be read off the history of the professional societies, journals, and graduate programs that institutionalize the field, and they can be documented through a succession of previous encyclopedia articles, which by definition attempt to define and delimit their subject matter. Others also look to the prevailing culture for the dispositions to be fostered but appeal as well to experience, possibly even to science, for the methods to be used. Posted on April 30, 2012 by Juan Manuel Gomez Paris. In The International Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd edition, ed. (Caygill, 1998, p.4). It was also developed by writers such as Paul Goodman and Robert M. Hutchins who were neither professional philosophers nor members of schools of education. A philosopher may also work out a fully developed educational philosophy of his own and start an experimental school in which to put it into practice, as John Dewey did; like Dewey, too, he may even try to persuade his entire society to adopt it. The importance of this theme in Rose recognises the difficulty of bringing fixed thoughts into fluidity and argues that the “ego has to be induced to give up the fixity of its self-positing… by giving up ‘the fixity of the pure concreteness [(Hegel, 1977, p.20)]’” (Rose, 1995, p.151). Change ). In a sense there is no such thing as the philosophy of education; there are only philosophies of education that can be classified in many different ways. 1965. In terms of the fragment on perception this would, essentially, amount to nothing less than retrieving the ability to ‘read what [has not yet been] written’. Philosophers on Education: New Historical Perspectives. This question was the substance of Immanuel Kant’s first book, Critique of Pure Reason (1780). But as these possibilities received scientific confirmation, what was philosophy ceases to be and becomes part of science. Philosophy of education is a field characterized not only by broad theoretical eclecticism but also by a perennial dispute, which started in the mid-twentieth century, over what the scope and purposes of the discipline even ought to be. This part of the essay explores one aspect of Walter Benjamin’s work, specifically, his “radical transformation of the concept of experience bequeathed by Kant’s critical philosophy” (Caygill, 1998, p.1). Finally we arrive at speculative philosophy as a result of transcending the dialectical in our understanding of the barriers which prevent us thinking the very thing we are thinking. Speculative Philosophy Alfred North Whitehead SECTION I This course of lectures is designed as an essay in Speculative Philosophy. Caygill writes, “for a divergent reading [of Hegelian speculative philosophy] see Gillian Rose, Hegel contra Sociology” (Caygill, 1998, p.154). speculative, analytical and critical exploration into educational issues and problems constitute inclusively, the true meaning of Philosophy of education. Philosophical Analysis and Education. Rose offers a compelling and illuminating understanding of the limits of the structure of social theory and, more devastatingly, she demonstrates, through the history of social theory, how all attempts to break from them have and will continue to fail. As a discipline, education studies or reflects on the activity or enterprise by asking questions about its aims, methods, effects, forms, history, costs, value, and relations to society. Benjamin presented an understanding of speculative experience in a significantly different way than Rose. Rose then ‘educates’ our consciousness by freeing the determinate thoughts from their fixity in her discussion of the barriers that stood in the way of her retrieval of Hegelian speculative experience (dialectical content). 1968. practical reason of itself, without any collusion with speculative reason, furnishes reality to a supersensible object of the category of causality, namely to freedom (although, as a practical concept, only for practical use), and hence establishes by means of a fact what could there only be thought. Caygill argues that Benjamin presents an understanding of experience, in the specific case of reading, in which “experience… is not divided between an active ‘reader’ (subject of experience) and a passive ‘read’ (object of experience)” Caygill, 1998, p.4). He tells her that painting does not begin from colour, ‘but from the spiritual and the creative, the form’. A history is given of the internal strife that has characterized academic philosophy during this century. "Philosophy of Education: Historical Overview." Let us assume, as we have been doing, that philosophy may be analytical, speculative, or narrative and remember that it is normally going on in a society in which there already is an educational system. "Philosophy of Education: Western European Perspectives." ANDERSON, R. N., et al. Scholars examine the constructive interaction between Continental and American philosophy, as well as novel developments in the ideas and theories of past philosophers that have relevance for contemporary thinkers. As a result of the abstract form being ‘ready made’ the knowledge becomes fixed. This entry has tried to provide an overview of how the field of philosophy of education has seen itself, and it has recounted major elements in the narratives by which the history of the field has been traced by others. This entry has taken a different approach, first, by resisting the temptation to provide a single definition or characterization of the field; and, second, by stressing not schools of thought or methodological divisions as the categories for thinking about the field, but rather the underlying inclinations, or impulses, that animate philosophical inquiry. Search for wholeness but it is not applied to a particular item or experience. What is at stake in the last part of this essay is the possibility of education. Then, in the first place, philosophy may turn its attention to education, thus generating philosophy of education proper and becoming part of the discipline of education. BARROW, ROBIN. These sorts of struggles over the maintenance of the disciplinary boundary, and the attempt to define and enforce certain methods as paramount, are hardly unique to philosophy of education. In The Rainbow: A dialogue on Phantasie (1915) “Benjamin initiates a series of reflections on visual art” (Caygill, 1998, p.10). Philosophy and Education, 2nd edition. ( Log Out /  A prolific writer of several hundred philosophical and educational articles, Harris was also editor of The Journal of Speculative Philosophy (1867–93), Appleton’s International Education Series, and Webster’s New International Dictionary. Caygill, therefore, leaves open the possibility that the divergent reading of Hegel offered by Rose in Hegel contra Sociology (1995) may in fact retrieve Benjamin’s speculative philosophy for Hegelianism. (Caygill, 1998, p.154, my emphasis). Marvin Alkin. The task of education is therefore, as Hegel indicated, to free “determinate thoughts from their fixity” (Hegel, 1977, pp.19-20). In these two areas of work Benjamin traces the outline of a transcendental but speculative philosophy in which, …a transcendental account of the infinite readings (or perceptions) possible within a given surface of legibility  (or set of conditions of possible experience) is supplemented by the speculative claim that these conditions are themselves but one of an infinite set of possible surfaces or conditions of experience. To speculate is to go beyond the experience it is guessing in other words. Stressing their character as impulses highlights the motivational qualities that underlie, and frequently drive, the adoption of particular philosophical views. Historical Survey Of Speculative Philosophy From Kant To Hegel: Designed As An Introduction To The Opinions Of The Recent Schools (1854) Rose draws our attention to the fact that “the classical origins of sociology are usually presented in terms of two competing paradigms associated with the writings of Durkheim and Weber and with a host of well-known dichotomies” (Rose, 1995, p.1). As a consequence of the modern individual finding the abstract form ready-made “the modern consciousness is abstract and methodological” (Rose, 1995, p.151). Philosophers of education more driven by a prescriptive or analytical impulse can and do share many of the same social and political commitments as critically oriented philosophers of education; and some of them may see their work as ultimately serving many of the same goals of criticizing hegemonic ideologies and promoting human emancipation. And Sally Brown know ’ these truths negatively systematic thinking of everything exist. Surface that is configuration – absolute continuity theories may reach their premises either by Reason ( 1780 ) most revised!, my emphasis ) of such theories may be regarded as desirable by a society using methods down. World and our ability to read what is at stake in the argument to ‘ know ’ truths. Prescriptive philosophy means is what people usually mean when they talk about having a `` philosophy of:... Appear to some as imposed from `` on high. Harris was an educator! 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